ultra useful sites

http://tldp.org/

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/

http://wiki.osdev.org/Introduction

http://www.linuxnix.com/2012/04/learn-linuxunix-find-command-50-practical-examples-part-i.html

will be updating for more.. 🙂

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a hello world introduction to internationalization in Linux using C

Hello, world!
i was thinking to read/write some do-it-yourself code for internationalization. This Awesome link explains it all. what is i18n and everything of how to do that in your code. Now obviously i tried the whole process, changed my LANG variable by bn_IN but no change in output. it was old “hello, world!” 😦
i searched a bit and then come up with the fact that i’ll have to first select the locale for using.

The steps are:

0. See the supported locales by : $ cat /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED (you can see, for bangla, it is bn_IN UTF-8 (see te space between bn_IN and UTF-8 .. it’s not ‘.’ it’s a space))
1. $ sudo gedit /var/lib/locales/supported.d/local

2. for Bengali, you add bn_IN UTF-8

3.$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure locales

4. if all goes well, export the environment variables LANG and LANGUAGE as:
$ export LANG=bn_IN
$ export LANGUAGE=bn_IN:bn

5. run your program. 🙂 hopefully it’ll work. worked for me!

Getting Linux back after Windows reinstallation

Many of us have dual-boot system which have Linux and Windows( or any other, say, Mac OSX etc… ) both installed. We have a operating-system-choice screen just after BIOS gets checked, by which we can choose, which OS to load in a session.
This is the Boot Loader (usually GRUB or LiLo). It has some commands (editable) by which it just gets the control from Master Boot Record (MBR) and chainloads the volume boot record (VBR) of the active (primary) partition where the bootable system image resides.

During Linux installation, we have GRUB installed in our system, so it can directly detects the other already installed operating systems in the HDD. Thus it produces the OS-Choice screen at the startup and we can choose which OS to load.

But the problem arises, if we have to reinstall/repair the previous OS in the same partition it was before.
i.e : s’ppose, windows was in C:\ and we’re trying to reinstall windows again on same partition C:\

During installation, every OS overwrites the MBR and keeps it’s fresh copy. So, if you have previously installed the Bootloader (e.g : GRUB ), then it’ll dessapear and you’ll not be able to boot into Linux. After startup, system will directly boot into Windows.

Now, get one point clear that the Linux OS is still intact. you just have lost the pointer how and from where to load it. Because, it was the job of your bootloader installed in MBR and you’ve overwritten the MBR, your bootloader is now history! 😛

Clearly, the solution is to install the bootloader once again so that it can detect both ( even more than 2 ) the OS and give you the sweet OS-Choice screen once again! 😀

Here’s how to do it :
step 1) put your Linux CD/DVD and boot from it in restore mode. After that, if all goes right, it’ll give you a command console.
step 2) type
chroot /mnt/sysimage
it loads the system image and present the root console.

step 3) reinstall GRUB into your MBR by typing
/sbin/grub-install /dev/hda (for ATA hard drive )
or
/sbin/grub-install /dev/sda (for SATA harddrives )

After this reboot the system and you’re done! 😀

NOTE :
I have a complication regarding the correct partition of the system images of Linux. I solved it by correcting the GRUB command. Here’s how I did it. 🙂

I went into edit command. there I saw 3 commands. The first command was for selecting the proper partition, the second was for lading the system image, and the third was initrd command.

The first command looked like,
root (hd0,1)
I just edited it to
root (hd0,2)
and everything fell perfectly into place. 🙂

One more thing… The above mentioned procedure will not work if you install windows in any other partitions other than the previous partition in which it originally was. in that case, GRUB will not be able to detect that. 😛

Hope you’ll find this tutorial useful. Wishing you people a smooth sail.

Be wise, Use Linux

Writing in Bengali in Fedora 9…! ফেডোরা ৯ লিনাক্সে বাংলা লেখা।

Yes buddies, I know that this is a pretty cliche topic and there are maybe many sites explaining the same. I also took help from specilaly অঙ্কুর বাংলা Website and some more sites which I forgot to bookmark 😦 . Specially, Project has many activities which ranges from Localisation to creating a fantastic বাংলা বানান নিরিক্ষক অভিধান for Firefox.

Well, I’m telling you *My* Procedure! It’s simple like hell.

I went into ” System > Preferences > Hardware > Keyboard ”

Then, I selected, Layouts in there. After that, I clicked “Add” and found out বাংলাদেশ প্রভাত and  ইন্ডিয়া বাংলা keyboard layouts. I added them and set the USA Layout to the defaults. There are other layouts for other Indic languages also. You can Try out that if you know them!

Now I right clicked into my gnome panel and selected, “Keyboard Layout Indicator” such that I can switch to any desired keyboard Layout when I want to.

Whoa, I’m done. Now Selecting the indic layouts, I can write in bengali in anywhere… 🙂

But now, one problem arised. I wasn’t being able to write composite letters in bengali. that is যুক্তাক্ষর . Fortunately, Kushal da was online ( who is also in অঙ্কুর বাংলা Project among his many activities and busy schedulle ) and I mailed him my problem. The response was instant, to-the-point and a complete breeze. He just said, ” use ‘/’  ” … That is, k / t = ক্ট ! 😀

More support about the layout and writing যুক্তাক্ষর can be found in here.

Whoa. I’m done fianly and chatted for almost 4 hours with her in bengali… 😀

Hope, This will be a little help to all those, who still stumbles writing in Indic font. This’s also a reason among a thousand, why one should switch into Linux… and trash Windoze 😛

Everything is sooo cool in this OS. I just Love it… 😀

Trouble with “/etc/X11/xorg.conf”

Heya… It’s been a long long time since my last post in here. I’m sorry, I went totally haywire from the Linux world… Only Academics and all that Master’s Degree plans… 😛

Well, Since 2 weeks, I’m back with my Linux box tweaks. Tonight, At very early hours, I was trying to install the new nVidia Driver into my machine. They have closed the rpm repository so the installation is a complex procedure now… You’ve to configure the xorg.conf file, then close the X server, and then, another problem may arise if you don’t have any precompiled kernel but only the binary image of it. I had, unfortunately nVidia installation software stopped me right there and as it was very late, I was gearing up for bed, then the bolt came from the blue.

I tried to restore my X server back by [ALT+F7] and it failed, giving a quick and scrolled error message. What I guessed that, It has something to do with what I’ve changed.

/etc/X11/xorg.conf

I just checked, what was wrong with that, ( I had my command line shell 🙂 )and I found I’ve left the server name in

Section “Device”
Identifier  “Videocard0”
Driver      “nvidia”
EndSection ,

The root of the problem was the word, nvidia. Which I recalled, earlier was, nv. Actually what happened, HAL didn’t find any device named nvidia… that’s it so X server failed.

I changed that. and restarted.

Everything worked fine, until the login screen. I was shocked to see that my keyboard is not working! 😦

I logged into my root accnt by help of on-screen keyboard and again oened the xorg.conf file. There I found,

# keyboard added by rhpxl
Identifier  “Keyboard0”
Driver      “nvidia”
Option        “XkbModel” “pc105”
Option        “XkbLayout” “us”
EndSection

How silly of me… 😦 I’ve mistakenly put the keyboard driver also as nvidia which was earlier, intuitively, “kbd”

I changed that and restarted again.. and Whoa… Life is peaceful once again.. ! 😀

Motto of the text : Always have a backup file while tweaking with system files !

Hope this experience will someday be a help to you… 🙂 Signing off… Need a sleep seriously… 😀 … Good Night… or rather, mornin’.. 🙂

Love you sweetheart… 🙂

Grid Computing and LHC… :)

Today’s a memorable day in the history of science. Be the massive experiment at CERN turns out satisfactory or not, it’ll be a milestone in human scientific and engineering history. All the Works, efforts and the vastness of this project is really mind boggling. The Main LHC team, Building blocks, The Superconductor specialists team, the Indian electronic sensor team, the Cryogenics team handling 170 tonnes of liquified Helium; and lastly but not the least… but more importantly, The Computing Team there at CERN tracking every single piece of data ( alltogether, it’s handling some 15 PetaBytes of data! ) for doing the actual findings.

Cleverly, the system introduced Grid Computing. What is grid computing can be found here. The pictures canbe found here.

The mission of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (LCG) project is to build and maintain a data storage and analysis infrastructure for the entire high energy physics community that will use the LHC.

The data from the LHC experiments will be distributed around the globe, according to a four-tiered model. A primary backup will be recorded on tape at CERN, the “Tier-0” centre of LCG. After initial processing, this data will be distributed to a series of Tier-1 centres, large computer centres with sufficient storage capacity and with round-the-clock support for the Grid.

The Tier-1 centres will make data available to Tier-2 centres, each consisting of one or several collaborating computing facilities, which can store sufficient data and provide adequate computing power for specific analysis tasks.

Individual scientists will access these facilities through Tier-3 computing resources, which can consist of local clusters in a University Department or even individual PCs, and which may be allocated to LCG on a regular basis.

For this, a specially designed SunCluster has been appointed (!) and it’s currantly working full fleged at CERN. By the way… 😀 CERN scientists are using VmWare Fusion to share Linux-based computer code on Fusion “virtual machines” running on Macs. The software links the computers to the LHC Computing Grid — a network of about 40,000 CPUs. So.. Linux Linux everywhere… 😀

A note to make : CERN actually invented the World Wide Web alongside with Tim Berners Lee for this type of large data sharing over wide spread areas. 😀 What an Idea, Sirji… 😀

void main(){ ptintf(“Hello world!”); }

This is Debmalya Sinha, a 20 year old 4th year Computer Science Student from AIEM, Durgapur. I am interested in mainly Algorithms, Computer Organization and System Architecture, Operating Systems, Theoretical Networking problems, Programming in mainly C and C++, and Cryptography.

Recently, my interests extended into a very cool and happening topic. Free and Open Source Software.

Though I had some Idea on Linux earlier, Linux was like an another Operating System to me until I tried to surge deep inside this wonderful community of gifted minds.

Yes, Linux to me, is not a mere another Operating System anymore. It’s like a community, with great minds working on it every now and when and everyone is willing to help every newbies. It’s like a regeneration of lost “True Communist World” only the method of action shifted, and more sophisticated.

I’m really trying hard to cope up with this wonderful world and working to contribute by any means to it.